Part VII. Internals

This part contains assorted information that might be of use to Postgres Pro developers.

Table of Contents

51. Overview of Postgres Pro Internals
51.1. The Path of a Query
51.2. How Connections Are Established
51.3. The Parser Stage
51.4. The Postgres Pro Rule System
51.5. Planner/Optimizer
51.6. Executor
52. System Catalogs
52.1. Overview
52.2. pg_aggregate
52.3. pg_am
52.4. pg_amop
52.5. pg_amproc
52.6. pg_attrdef
52.7. pg_attribute
52.8. pg_authid
52.9. pg_auth_members
52.10. pg_cast
52.11. pg_class
52.12. pg_collation
52.13. pg_constraint
52.14. pg_conversion
52.15. pg_database
52.16. pg_db_role_setting
52.17. pg_default_acl
52.18. pg_depend
52.19. pg_description
52.20. pg_enum
52.21. pg_event_trigger
52.22. pg_extension
52.23. pg_foreign_data_wrapper
52.24. pg_foreign_server
52.25. pg_foreign_table
52.26. pg_index
52.27. pg_inherits
52.28. pg_init_privs
52.29. pg_language
52.30. pg_largeobject
52.31. pg_largeobject_metadata
52.32. pg_namespace
52.33. pg_opclass
52.34. pg_operator
52.35. pg_opfamily
52.36. pg_partitioned_table
52.37. pg_pltemplate
52.38. pg_policy
52.39. pg_proc
52.40. pg_publication
52.41. pg_publication_rel
52.42. pg_range
52.43. pg_replication_origin
52.44. pg_rewrite
52.45. pg_seclabel
52.46. pg_sequence
52.47. pg_shdepend
52.48. pg_shdescription
52.49. pg_shseclabel
52.50. pg_statistic
52.51. pg_statistic_ext
52.52. pg_statistic_ext_data
52.53. pg_subscription
52.54. pg_subscription_rel
52.55. pg_tablespace
52.56. pg_transform
52.57. pg_trigger
52.58. pg_ts_config
52.59. pg_ts_config_map
52.60. pg_ts_dict
52.61. pg_ts_parser
52.62. pg_ts_template
52.63. pg_type
52.64. pg_user_mapping
52.65. System Views
52.66. pg_available_extensions
52.67. pg_available_extension_versions
52.68. pg_config
52.69. pg_cursors
52.70. pg_file_settings
52.71. pg_group
52.72. pg_hba_file_rules
52.73. pg_indexes
52.74. pg_locks
52.75. pg_matviews
52.76. pg_policies
52.77. pg_prepared_statements
52.78. pg_autoprepared_statements
52.79. pg_prepared_xacts
52.80. pg_publication_tables
52.81. pg_replication_origin_status
52.82. pg_replication_slots
52.83. pg_roles
52.84. pg_rules
52.85. pg_seclabels
52.86. pg_sequences
52.87. pg_settings
52.88. pg_shadow
52.89. pg_stats
52.90. pg_stats_ext
52.91. pg_tables
52.92. pg_timezone_abbrevs
52.93. pg_timezone_names
52.94. pg_user
52.95. pg_user_mappings
52.96. pg_views
53. Frontend/Backend Protocol
53.1. Overview
53.2. Message Flow
53.3. SASL Authentication
53.4. Streaming Replication Protocol
53.5. Logical Streaming Replication Protocol
53.6. Message Data Types
53.7. Message Formats
53.8. Error and Notice Message Fields
53.9. Logical Replication Message Formats
53.10. Summary of Changes since Protocol 2.0
54. Writing a Procedural Language Handler
55. Writing a Foreign Data Wrapper
55.1. Foreign Data Wrapper Functions
55.2. Foreign Data Wrapper Callback Routines
55.3. Foreign Data Wrapper Helper Functions
55.4. Foreign Data Wrapper Query Planning
55.5. Row Locking in Foreign Data Wrappers
56. Writing a Table Sampling Method
56.1. Sampling Method Support Functions
57. Writing a Custom Scan Provider
57.1. Creating Custom Scan Paths
57.2. Creating Custom Scan Plans
57.3. Executing Custom Scans
58. Genetic Query Optimizer
58.1. Query Handling as a Complex Optimization Problem
58.2. Genetic Algorithms
58.3. Genetic Query Optimization (GEQO) in Postgres Pro
58.4. Further Reading
59. Table Access Method Interface Definition
60. Index Access Method Interface Definition
60.1. Basic API Structure for Indexes
60.2. Index Access Method Functions
60.3. Index Scanning
60.4. Index Locking Considerations
60.5. Index Uniqueness Checks
60.6. Index Cost Estimation Functions
61. Generic WAL Records
62. B-Tree Indexes
62.1. Introduction
62.2. Behavior of B-Tree Operator Classes
62.3. B-Tree Support Functions
62.4. Implementation
63. GiST Indexes
63.1. Introduction
63.2. Built-in Operator Classes
63.3. Extensibility
63.4. Implementation
63.5. Examples
64. SP-GiST Indexes
64.1. Introduction
64.2. Built-in Operator Classes
64.3. Extensibility
64.4. Implementation
64.5. Examples
65. GIN Indexes
65.1. Introduction
65.2. Built-in Operator Classes
65.3. Extensibility
65.4. Implementation
65.5. GIN Tips and Tricks
65.6. Limitations
65.7. Examples
66. BRIN Indexes
66.1. Introduction
66.2. Built-in Operator Classes
66.3. Extensibility
67. Database Physical Storage
67.1. Database File Layout
67.2. TOAST
67.3. Free Space Map
67.4. Visibility Map
67.5. The Initialization Fork
67.6. Database Page Layout
68. System Catalog Declarations and Initial Contents
68.1. System Catalog Declaration Rules
68.2. System Catalog Initial Data
68.3. BKI File Format
68.4. BKI Commands
68.5. Structure of the Bootstrap BKI File
68.6. BKI Example
69. How the Planner Uses Statistics
69.1. Row Estimation Examples
69.2. Multivariate Statistics Examples
69.3. Planner Statistics and Security