pg_authid contains information about database authorization identifiers (roles). A role subsumes the concepts of “users” and “groups”. A user is essentially just a role with the
rolcanlogin flag set. Any role (with or without
rolcanlogin) can have other roles as members; see
Since this catalog contains passwords, it must not be publicly readable.
pg_roles is a publicly readable view on
pg_authid that blanks out the password field.
Chapter 21 contains detailed information about user and privilege management.
Because user identities are cluster-wide,
pg_authid is shared across all databases of a cluster: there is only one copy of
pg_authid per cluster, not one per database.
|Role has superuser privileges|
|Role automatically inherits privileges of roles it is a member of|
|Role can create more roles|
|Role can create databases|
|Role can log in. That is, this role can be given as the initial session authorization identifier|
|Role is a replication role. A replication role can initiate replication connections and create and drop replication slots.|
|Role bypasses every row level security policy, see Section 5.8 for more information.|
|For roles that can log in, this sets maximum number of concurrent connections this role can make. -1 means no limit.|
|Password (possibly encrypted); null if none. The format depends on the form of encryption used.|
|Password expiry time (only used for password authentication); null if no expiration|
For an MD5 encrypted password,
rolpassword column will begin with the string
md5 followed by a 32-character hexadecimal MD5 hash. The MD5 hash will be of the user's password concatenated to their user name. For example, if user
joe has password
xyzzy, PostgreSQL will store the md5 hash of
If the password is encrypted with SCRAM-SHA-256, it has the format:
ServerKey are in Base64 encoded format. This format is the same as that specified by RFC 5803.
A password that does not follow either of those formats is assumed to be unencrypted.