16.4. Installation Procedure
The first step of the installation procedure is to configure the source tree for your system and choose the options you would like. This is done by running the
configurescript. For a default installation simply enter:
This script will run a number of tests to determine values for various system dependent variables and detect any quirks of your operating system, and finally will create several files in the build tree to record what it found. You can also run
configurein a directory outside the source tree, if you want to keep the build directory separate. This procedure is also called a VPATH build. Here's how:
/path/to/source/tree/configure [options go here]
The default configuration will build the server and utilities, as well as all client applications and interfaces that require only a C compiler. All files will be installed under
You can customize the build and installation process by supplying one or more of the following command line options to
Install all files under the directory
/usr/local/pgsql. The actual files will be installed into various subdirectories; no files will ever be installed directly into the
If you have special needs, you can also customize the individual subdirectories with the following options. However, if you leave these with their defaults, the installation will be relocatable, meaning you can move the directory after installation. (The
doclocations are not affected by this.)
For relocatable installs, you might want to use
--disable-rpathoption. Also, you will need to tell the operating system how to find the shared libraries.
You can install architecture-dependent files under a different prefix,
EXEC-PREFIX, than what
PREFIXwas set to. This can be useful to share architecture-independent files between hosts. If you omit this, then
EXEC-PREFIXis set equal to
PREFIXand both architecture-dependent and independent files will be installed under the same tree, which is probably what you want.
Specifies the directory for executable programs. The default is
, which normally means
Sets the directory for various configuration files,
Sets the location to install libraries and dynamically loadable modules. The default is
Sets the directory for installing C and C++ header files. The default is
Sets the root directory for various types of read-only data files. This only sets the default for some of the following options. The default is
Sets the directory for read-only data files used by the installed programs. The default is
. Note that this has nothing to do with where your database files will be placed.
Sets the directory for installing locale data, in particular message translation catalog files. The default is
The man pages that come with PostgreSQL will be installed under this directory, in their respective
mansubdirectories. The default is
Sets the root directory for installing documentation files, except “man” pages. This only sets the default for the following options. The default value for this option is
The HTML-formatted documentation for PostgreSQL will be installed under this directory. The default is
Care has been taken to make it possible to install PostgreSQL into shared installation locations (such as
/usr/local/include) without interfering with the namespace of the rest of the system. First, the string “
/postgresql” is automatically appended to
docdir, unless the fully expanded directory name already contains the string “
postgres” or “
pgsql”. For example, if you choose
/usr/localas prefix, the documentation will be installed in
/usr/local/doc/postgresql, but if the prefix is
/opt/postgres, then it will be in
/opt/postgres/doc. The public C header files of the client interfaces are installed into
includedirand are namespace-clean. The internal header files and the server header files are installed into private directories under
includedir. See the documentation of each interface for information about how to access its header files. Finally, a private subdirectory will also be created, if appropriate, under
libdirfor dynamically loadable modules.
STRINGto the PostgreSQL version number. You can use this, for example, to mark binaries built from unreleased Git snapshots or containing custom patches with an extra version string such as a
git describeidentifier or a distribution package release number.
DIRECTORIESis a colon-separated list of directories that will be added to the list the compiler searches for header files. If you have optional packages (such as GNU Readline) installed in a non-standard location, you have to use this option and probably also the corresponding
DIRECTORIESis a colon-separated list of directories to search for libraries. You will probably have to use this option (and the corresponding
--with-includesoption) if you have packages installed in non-standard locations.
Enables Native Language Support (NLS), that is, the ability to display a program's messages in a language other than English.
LANGUAGESis an optional space-separated list of codes of the languages that you want supported, for example
--enable-nls='de fr'. (The intersection between your list and the set of actually provided translations will be computed automatically.) If you do not specify a list, then all available translations are installed.
To use this option, you will need an implementation of the Gettext API; see above.
NUMBERas the default port number for server and clients. The default is 5432. The port can always be changed later on, but if you specify it here then both server and clients will have the same default compiled in, which can be very convenient. Usually the only good reason to select a non-default value is if you intend to run multiple PostgreSQL servers on the same machine.
Build the PL/Perl server-side language.
Build the PL/Python server-side language.
Build the PL/Tcl server-side language.
Tcl installs the file
tclConfig.sh, which contains configuration information needed to build modules interfacing to Tcl. This file is normally found automatically at a well-known location, but if you want to use a different version of Tcl you can specify the directory in which to look for it.
Build with support for GSSAPI authentication. On many systems, the GSSAPI (usually a part of the Kerberos installation) system is not installed in a location that is searched by default (e.g.,
/usr/lib), so you must use the options
--with-librariesin addition to this option.
configurewill check for the required header files and libraries to make sure that your GSSAPI installation is sufficient before proceeding.
The default name of the Kerberos service principal used by GSSAPI.
postgresis the default. There's usually no reason to change this unless you have a Windows environment, in which case it must be set to upper case
Build with support for LLVM based JIT compilation (see Chapter 32). This requires the LLVM library to be installed. The minimum required version of LLVM is currently 3.9.
llvm-configwill be used to find the required compilation options.
llvm-config, and then
llvm-config-$major-$minorfor all supported versions, will be searched on
PATH. If that would not yield the correct binary, use
LLVM_CONFIGto specify a path to the correct
llvm-config. For example
./configure ... --with-llvm LLVM_CONFIG='/path/to/llvm/bin/llvm-config'
LLVM support requires a compatible
clangcompiler (specified, if necessary, using the
CLANGenvironment variable), and a working C++ compiler (specified, if necessary, using the
By default, pkg-config will be used to find the required compilation options. This is supported for ICU4C version 4.6 and later. For older versions, or if pkg-config is not available, the variables
ICU_LIBScan be specified to
configure, like in this example:
./configure ... --with-icu ICU_CFLAGS='-I/some/where/include' ICU_LIBS='-L/some/where/lib -licui18n -licuuc -licudata'
(If ICU4C is in the default search path for the compiler, then you still need to specify a nonempty string in order to avoid use of pkg-config, for example,
Build with support for SSL (encrypted) connections. This requires the OpenSSL package to be installed.
configurewill check for the required header files and libraries to make sure that your OpenSSL installation is sufficient before proceeding.
Build with BSD Authentication support. (The BSD Authentication framework is currently only available on OpenBSD.)
Build with LDAP support for authentication and connection parameter lookup (see Section 34.17 and Section 20.10 for more information). On Unix, this requires the OpenLDAP package to be installed. On Windows, the default WinLDAP library is used.
configurewill check for the required header files and libraries to make sure that your OpenLDAP installation is sufficient before proceeding.
Build with support for systemd service notifications. This improves integration if the server binary is started under systemd but has no impact otherwise; see Section 18.3 for more information. libsystemd and the associated header files need to be installed to be able to use this option.
Prevents use of the Readline library (and libedit as well). This option disables command-line editing and history in psql, so it is not recommended.
Favors the use of the BSD-licensed libedit library rather than GPL-licensed Readline. This option is significant only if you have both libraries installed; the default in that case is to use Readline.
Build with Bonjour support. This requires Bonjour support in your operating system. Recommended on macOS.
Build the uuid-ossp module (which provides functions to generate UUIDs), using the specified UUID library.
LIBRARYmust be one of:
bsdto use the UUID functions found in FreeBSD, NetBSD, and some other BSD-derived systems
e2fsto use the UUID library created by the
e2fsprogsproject; this library is present in most Linux systems and in macOS, and can be obtained for other platforms as well
osspto use the OSSP UUID library
Obsolete equivalent of
Build with libxml2, enabling SQL/XML support. Libxml2 version 2.6.23 or later is required for this feature.
To detect the required compiler and linker options, PostgreSQL will query
pkg-config, if that is installed and knows about libxml2. Otherwise the program
xml2-config, which is installed by libxml2, will be used if it is found. Use of
pkg-configis preferred, because it can deal with multi-architecture installations better.
To use a libxml2 installation that is in an unusual location, you can set
pkg-config-related environment variables (see its documentation), or set the environment variable
XML2_CONFIGto point to the
xml2-configprogram belonging to the libxml2 installation, or set the variables
pkg-configis installed, then to override its idea of where libxml2 is you must either set
XML2_CONFIGor set both
XML2_LIBSto nonempty strings.)
Use libxslt when building the xml2 module. xml2 relies on this library to perform XSL transformations of XML.
Disable passing float4 values “by value”, causing them to be passed “by reference” instead. This option costs performance, but may be needed for compatibility with old user-defined functions that are written in C and use the “version 0” calling convention. A better long-term solution is to update any such functions to use the “version 1” calling convention.
Disable passing float8 values “by value”, causing them to be passed “by reference” instead. This option costs performance, but may be needed for compatibility with old user-defined functions that are written in C and use the “version 0” calling convention. A better long-term solution is to update any such functions to use the “version 1” calling convention. Note that this option affects not only float8, but also int8 and some related types such as timestamp. On 32-bit platforms,
--disable-float8-byvalis the default and it is not allowed to select
Set the segment size, in gigabytes. Large tables are divided into multiple operating-system files, each of size equal to the segment size. This avoids problems with file size limits that exist on many platforms. The default segment size, 1 gigabyte, is safe on all supported platforms. If your operating system has “largefile” support (which most do, nowadays), you can use a larger segment size. This can be helpful to reduce the number of file descriptors consumed when working with very large tables. But be careful not to select a value larger than is supported by your platform and the file systems you intend to use. Other tools you might wish to use, such as tar, could also set limits on the usable file size. It is recommended, though not absolutely required, that this value be a power of 2. Note that changing this value requires an initdb.
Set the block size, in kilobytes. This is the unit of storage and I/O within tables. The default, 8 kilobytes, is suitable for most situations; but other values may be useful in special cases. The value must be a power of 2 between 1 and 32 (kilobytes). Note that changing this value requires an initdb.
Set the WAL block size, in kilobytes. This is the unit of storage and I/O within the WAL log. The default, 8 kilobytes, is suitable for most situations; but other values may be useful in special cases. The value must be a power of 2 between 1 and 64 (kilobytes). Note that changing this value requires an initdb.
Allow the build to succeed even if PostgreSQL has no CPU spinlock support for the platform. The lack of spinlock support will result in poor performance; therefore, this option should only be used if the build aborts and informs you that the platform lacks spinlock support. If this option is required to build PostgreSQL on your platform, please report the problem to the PostgreSQL developers.
Allow the build to succeed even if PostgreSQL has no support for strong random numbers on the platform. A source of random numbers is needed for some authentication protocols, as well as some routines in the pgcrypto module.
--disable-strong-randomdisables functionality that requires cryptographically strong random numbers, and substitutes a weak pseudo-random-number-generator for the generation of authentication salt values and query cancel keys. It may make authentication less secure.
Disable the thread-safety of client libraries. This prevents concurrent threads in libpq and ECPG programs from safely controlling their private connection handles.
PostgreSQL includes its own time zone database, which it requires for date and time operations. This time zone database is in fact compatible with the IANA time zone database provided by many operating systems such as FreeBSD, Linux, and Solaris, so it would be redundant to install it again. When this option is used, the system-supplied time zone database in
DIRECTORYis used instead of the one included in the PostgreSQL source distribution.
DIRECTORYmust be specified as an absolute path.
/usr/share/zoneinfois a likely directory on some operating systems. Note that the installation routine will not detect mismatching or erroneous time zone data. If you use this option, you are advised to run the regression tests to verify that the time zone data you have pointed to works correctly with PostgreSQL.
This option is mainly aimed at binary package distributors who know their target operating system well. The main advantage of using this option is that the PostgreSQL package won't need to be upgraded whenever any of the many local daylight-saving time rules change. Another advantage is that PostgreSQL can be cross-compiled more straightforwardly if the time zone database files do not need to be built during the installation.
Compiles all programs and libraries with debugging symbols. This means that you can run the programs in a debugger to analyze problems. This enlarges the size of the installed executables considerably, and on non-GCC compilers it usually also disables compiler optimization, causing slowdowns. However, having the symbols available is extremely helpful for dealing with any problems that might arise. Currently, this option is recommended for production installations only if you use GCC. But you should always have it on if you are doing development work or running a beta version.
If using GCC, all programs and libraries are compiled with code coverage testing instrumentation. When run, they generate files in the build directory with code coverage metrics. See Section 33.5 for more information. This option is for use only with GCC and when doing development work.
If using GCC, all programs and libraries are compiled so they can be profiled. On backend exit, a subdirectory will be created that contains the
gmon.outfile for use in profiling. This option is for use only with GCC and when doing development work.
Enables assertion checks in the server, which test for many “cannot happen” conditions. This is invaluable for code development purposes, but the tests can slow down the server significantly. Also, having the tests turned on won't necessarily enhance the stability of your server! The assertion checks are not categorized for severity, and so what might be a relatively harmless bug will still lead to server restarts if it triggers an assertion failure. This option is not recommended for production use, but you should have it on for development work or when running a beta version.
Enables automatic dependency tracking. With this option, the makefiles are set up so that all affected object files will be rebuilt when any header file is changed. This is useful if you are doing development work, but is just wasted overhead if you intend only to compile once and install. At present, this option only works with GCC.
Compiles PostgreSQL with support for the dynamic tracing tool DTrace. See Section 28.5 for more information.
To point to the
dtraceprogram, the environment variable
DTRACEcan be set. This will often be necessary because
dtraceis typically installed under
/usr/sbin, which might not be in the path.
Extra command-line options for the
dtraceprogram can be specified in the environment variable
DTRACEFLAGS. On Solaris, to include DTrace support in a 64-bit binary, you must specify
DTRACEFLAGS="-64"to configure. For example, using the GCC compiler:
./configure CC='gcc -m64' --enable-dtrace DTRACEFLAGS='-64' ...
Using Sun's compiler:
./configure CC='/opt/SUNWspro/bin/cc -xtarget=native64' --enable-dtrace DTRACEFLAGS='-64' ...
Enable tests using the Perl TAP tools. This requires a Perl installation and the Perl module
IPC::Run. See Section 33.4 for more information.
If you prefer a C compiler different from the one
configurepicks, you can set the environment variable
CCto the program of your choice. By default,
gccif available, else the platform's default (usually
cc). Similarly, you can override the default compiler flags if needed with the
You can specify environment variables on the
configurecommand line, for example:
./configure CC=/opt/bin/gcc CFLAGS='-O2 -pipe'
Here is a list of the significant variables that can be set in this manner:
options to pass to the C compiler
clangprogram used to process source code for inlining when compiling with
options to pass to the C preprocessor
options to pass to the C++ compiler
location of the
options to pass to the
options to use when linking either executables or shared libraries
additional options for linking executables only
additional options for linking shared libraries only
llvm-configprogram used to locate the LLVM installation.
msgfmtprogram for native language support
Perl interpreter program. This will be used to determine the dependencies for building PL/Perl. The default is
Python interpreter program. This will be used to determine the dependencies for building PL/Python. Also, whether Python 2 or 3 is specified here (or otherwise implicitly chosen) determines which variant of the PL/Python language becomes available. See Section 46.1 for more information. If this is not set, the following are probed in this order:
python python3 python2.
Tcl interpreter program. This will be used to determine the dependencies for building PL/Tcl, and it will be substituted into Tcl scripts.
xml2-configprogram used to locate the libxml2 installation
Sometimes it is useful to add compiler flags after-the-fact to the set that were chosen by
configure. An important example is that gcc's
-Werroroption cannot be included in the
configure, because it will break many of
configure's built-in tests. To add such flags, include them in the
COPTenvironment variable while running
make. The contents of
COPTare added to both the
LDFLAGSoptions set up by
configure. For example, you could do
When developing code inside the server, it is recommended to use the configure options
--enable-cassert(which turns on many run-time error checks) and
--enable-debug(which improves the usefulness of debugging tools).
If using GCC, it is best to build with an optimization level of at least
-O1, because using no optimization (
-O0) disables some important compiler warnings (such as the use of uninitialized variables). However, non-zero optimization levels can complicate debugging because stepping through compiled code will usually not match up one-to-one with source code lines. If you get confused while trying to debug optimized code, recompile the specific files of interest with
-O0. An easy way to do this is by passing an option to make:
make PROFILE=-O0 file.o.
PROFILEenvironment variables are actually handled identically by the PostgreSQL makefiles. Which to use is a matter of preference, but a common habit among developers is to use
PROFILEfor one-time flag adjustments, while
COPTmight be kept set all the time.
To start the build, type either of:
(Remember to use GNU make.) The build will take a few minutes depending on your hardware. The last line displayed should be:
All of PostgreSQL successfully made. Ready to install.
If you want to build everything that can be built, including the documentation (HTML and man pages), and the additional modules (
contrib), type instead:
The last line displayed should be:
PostgreSQL, contrib, and documentation successfully made. Ready to install.
If you want to build everything that can be built, including the additional modules (
contrib), but without the documentation, type instead:
If you want to invoke the build from another makefile rather than manually, you must unset
MAKELEVELor set it to zero, for instance like this:
build-postgresql: $(MAKE) -C postgresql MAKELEVEL=0 all
Failure to do that can lead to strange error messages, typically about missing header files.
If you want to test the newly built server before you install it, you can run the regression tests at this point. The regression tests are a test suite to verify that PostgreSQL runs on your machine in the way the developers expected it to. Type:
(This won't work as root; do it as an unprivileged user.) See Chapter 33 for detailed information about interpreting the test results. You can repeat this test at any later time by issuing the same command.
Installing the Files
If you are upgrading an existing system be sure to read Section 18.6, which has instructions about upgrading a cluster.
To install PostgreSQL enter:
This will install files into the directories that were specified in Step 1. Make sure that you have appropriate permissions to write into that area. Normally you need to do this step as root. Alternatively, you can create the target directories in advance and arrange for appropriate permissions to be granted.
To install the documentation (HTML and man pages), enter:
If you built the world above, type instead:
This also installs the documentation.
If you built the world without the documentation above, type instead:
You can use
make install-stripinstead of
make installto strip the executable files and libraries as they are installed. This will save some space. If you built with debugging support, stripping will effectively remove the debugging support, so it should only be done if debugging is no longer needed.
install-striptries to do a reasonable job saving space, but it does not have perfect knowledge of how to strip every unneeded byte from an executable file, so if you want to save all the disk space you possibly can, you will have to do manual work.
The standard installation provides all the header files needed for client application development as well as for server-side program development, such as custom functions or data types written in C. (Prior to PostgreSQL 8.0, a separate
make install-all-headerscommand was needed for the latter, but this step has been folded into the standard install.)
Client-only installation: If you want to install only the client applications and interface libraries, then you can use these commands:
make -C src/bin install
make -C src/include install
make -C src/interfaces install
make -C doc install
src/binhas a few binaries for server-only use, but they are small.
Uninstallation: To undo the installation use the command
make uninstall. However, this will not remove any created directories.
Cleaning: After the installation you can free disk space by removing the built files from the source tree with the command
make clean. This will preserve the files made by the
configure program, so that you can rebuild everything with
make later on. To reset the source tree to the state in which it was distributed, use
make distclean. If you are going to build for several platforms within the same source tree you must do this and re-configure for each platform. (Alternatively, use a separate build tree for each platform, so that the source tree remains unmodified.)
If you perform a build and then discover that your
configure options were wrong, or if you change anything that
configure investigates (for example, software upgrades), then it's a good idea to do
make distclean before reconfiguring and rebuilding. Without this, your changes in configuration choices might not propagate everywhere they need to.